Transformer Application Fundamentals

Table of Contents

  • Brief Description
  • Note to the Reader
  • Transformation Construction
  • Turns Per Volt
  • Need for Transformers
  • Current and Power
  • Review and Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Review Answers
  • Core Losses
  • Core Shapes
  • EI Cores
  • Magnetization and Flux
    Design
  • Built Up Cores
  • Cores – Other
  • Core Assembly and Sound
  • Treatment and Sound Magnetostriction
  • Review and Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Review Answers
  • Single Windings
  • Tap Changing
  • Tap Placement
  • Taps
  • Multiple Voltage
  • Multiple Windings
  • Series Connection
  • Parallel or Multiple Connections
  • Multiple Windings and Transformer
  • Taps and Transformer Size
  • Review and Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Review Answers
  • Additive and Subtractive Voltage
  • Termination Marking
  • Autotransformers
  • Copper Loss
  • Wire Size, Current and Current Density
  • Ratings for Multiple Voltages
  • Wire Size and Heating
  • Transformer Efficiency
  • Review and Summary
  • Tapped Secondary Windings
  • Reduced Capacity Secondary Taps
  • Full Capacity Secondary Taps
  • Special Secondary Taps
  • Review Questions
  • Review Answers
  • Functions of the Core.
  • Coupling Between Coils.
  • Treatment (Impregnation)
  • Temperature and Voltage Rating
  • Insulation Types
  • Hot Spot Temperature
  • Insulation Classes
  • Core and Coils
  • Insulation (Need for)
  • Impregnation Methods
  • Air Cooling
  • Standard Insulation Classes
  • Insulation Uses
  • Temperature Rise
  • Measuring Temperature Rise
  • Ambient Temperature
  • Transformer Cooling
  • Liquid Cooling
  • Review and Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Review Answers
  • Alternating Voltage Generation
  • Sine Wave Generation
  • Alternating Current
  • Effective Value or RMS
  • Instantaneous Values of Voltage and Current
  • AC Power
  • Review and Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Review Answers
  • Leading and Lagging Currents
  • Capacitive Reactance.
  • Inductance and Lagging Currents
  • Inductive Reactance
    Capacitance and Leading Currents
  • Impedance
  • Impedance-Current and Voltage Relationship
  • Impedance-Voltage Phasers
  • Power Factor
  • Review and Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Review Answers
  • Real Versus Apparent Power
  • Power in Lagging Power Factor Circuits
  • Power in Leading Power Factor Circuits
  • Power in 45° Leading Power Factor Circuits
  • Power Factor and Line Current
  • Transformer Rating and Power Factor
  • Power Factor Correction
  • Review and Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Review Answers
  • Alternating Voltage Generation
  • Polyphase Voltage Generation
  • Three Phase Connections – Delta
  • Polyphase Systems
  • Three Phase Connections: Wye-Delta
  • Three Phase Connections: Wye
  • Power in a Three Phase Wye System
  • Power in a Three Phase Delta System
  • Three Phase Connections: Delta-Wye
  • Review and Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Review Answers
  • Single Phase Transformers on Three Phase Delta-Delta Circuits
  • Three Phase Delta-Delta Connected Transformer
  • Three Phase Wye-Wye Connected Transformer
  • Single Phase Transformers in a Delta-Wye Circuit
  • Three Phase Delta-Wye Connected Transformer
  • Three Phase Transformer
  • Open Delta Connection
  • Review and Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Review Answers
  • Tee Connected Three Phase Transformer
  • Three Phase Autotransformer
  • Tap Placement on Three Phase Transformers
  • Taps on Three Phase Transformers
  • Unbalanced Loads, Delta-Wye
  • Unbalanced Loads, Delta-Delta
  • Unbalanced Loads, Delta-Delta Current Calculations
  • Transformer Phase Currents–a Graphical Solution
  • Single Phase Transformers in Three Phase Banks
  • Review and Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Review Answers
  • Regulation
  • Transformer Impedance
  • Effective Transformer Reactance
  • Effective Transformer Impedance
  • Per Cent Impedance, Resistance and Reactance
  • Regulation Compensation
  • Determination of Impedance
  • Effective Transformer Resistance
  • Short Circuit Current
  • Transformers in Parallel
  • Review and Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Review Answers
  • Ambient Temperature and Ventilation
  • Field Testing
  • Grounding of Transformers
  • Inrush Current
  • Transformer Sound Ratings
  • Transformer Testing
    • Dielectric Strength
    • Heat Runs
  • Transformer Sound
  • Transformer Life
  • Altitude Corrections
  • Ambient Temperature Corrections
  • Conclusion
  • Review and Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Review Answers
  • Abbreviations and Designations

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Copyright Notice:

Transformer Application Fundamentals © 1970 – 2019, Jefferson Electric, Inc. No part may be reproduced in any form without written permission from the copyright holder.

This electronic file is to be used for promotional purposes only, to support the sale of Jefferson Electric products. No portion of this file may be used, in either electronic or in print form, for commercial purposes without the written permission of Jefferson Electric, 9650 South Franklin Drive, Franklin, WI 53132-8847. This file may be transmitted only in its entirety without any alterations to its content, appearance, or functionality.

Due to ongoing product development and technical enhancements, Jefferson Electric reserves the right to change technical specifications.