Transformers are provided with access covers to facilitate installation and service. They must be kept securely in place at all times when the transformer is operating.
CAUTION: Normal operating voltages can be extremely hazardous. Only qualified personnel should install, inspect or service transformers. Disconnect the power before opening the cover or touching any internal parts.
Transformers should be stored in a warm, dry location of uniform temperature and in their original packing. If the transformer has been unpacked, all ventilating openings should be covered to keep out dust. Outdoor storage should be avoided, but if this is not possible, the transformer must be protected against moisture and contaminants.
Condensation and moisture can be reduced with heaters. If the transformer has been subjected to moisture, it should be baked out before energizing. This is especially important in transformers of 5 kV or higher.
If the transformer comes supplied with taps, they will generally have a full capacity rating. A common tap arrangement is two 2.5% taps above (FCAN) and four 2.5% taps below (FCBN) nominal voltage. Transformers are shipped with the taps connected for nominal voltage, that is, 480 volts for a 480 volt transformer. The installing electrician must change the taps if the supply voltage differs from the nominal voltage rating.
Connections and Circuits
The transformer should be connected only as described on the nameplate or the wiring diagram inside the wiring compartment cover, or as otherwise specifically authorized by Jefferson Electric. Transformers without terminal boards, usually the smaller size transformers, provide leads for connections.
IMPORTANT: Any unused taps or leads must be insulated from each other and taped Encapsulated transformers, 2 kVA and smaller, have their turns ratio compensated for losses so that their open circuit voltage is somewhat higher than the load voltage. Machine tool transformers are compensated up to 5 kVA. Using transformers in the reverse direction from which it is designed would result in lower than expected output voltage.
Mounting and Spacing
Dry-type transformers depend on air for cooling, and must be placed so that room air can circulate freely around them. Cabinet style transformers must be mounted so that air can pass freely through the ventilation openings. The transformer space should be kept clear.
Transformers should be spaced at least six inches apart. Transformers rated 30 kVA and larger should be kept at least six inches from walls and ceilings.
Transformers should never be mounted near heat-generating equipment or near heat-sensitive equipment. Transformers should never be placed in a room with hazardous processes, or where flammable gasses or combustible materials are present. Particular care must be taken when mounting in unventilated plenums or in closets with no ventilation. In areas without free moving air, ambient temperatures can rise above acceptable limits, causing the transformer to overheat.
Periodic inspection of the transformer should be made, depending on conditions. In most clean, dry installations, once a year is usually sufficient. After disconnecting the transformer from the power, the cover should be removed and any dirt cleaned out. Screens covering the ventilating openings should be cleaned.
Inspect for loose connections, terminal and splice conditions and for signs of overheating, rust or deteriorating paint.