Carefully inspect the transformer before signing the delivery receipt. Any damage should be noted on the receipt and a claim placed against the transportation company. Protective grease placed on terminal connections should not be removed. The grease is a protective coating that prevents the oxidation of the conductor. Bolt the terminal connector firmly to the bus bar, allowing the protective film to be forced out.

Safety

Transformers are provided with access covers to facilitate installation and service. They must be kept securely in place at all times when the transformer is operating.

CAUTION: Normal operating voltages can be extremely hazardous. Only qualified personnel should install, inspect or service transformers. Disconnect the power before opening the cover or touching any internal parts.

Storage

Transformers should be stored in a warm, dry location of uniform temperature and in their original packing. If the transformer has been unpacked, all ventilating openings should be covered to keep out dust. Outdoor storage should be avoided, but if this is not possible, the transformer must be protected against moisture and contaminants.

Condensation and moisture can be reduced with heaters. If the transformer has been subjected to moisture, it should be baked out before energizing. This is especially important in transformers of 5 kV or higher.

Taps

If the transformer comes supplied with taps, they will generally have a full capacity rating. A common tap arrangement is two 2.5% taps above (FCAN) and four 2.5% taps below (FCBN) nominal voltage. Transformers are shipped with the taps connected for nominal voltage, that is, 480 volts for a 480 volt transformer. The installing electrician must change the taps if the supply voltage differs from the nominal voltage rating.

Connections and Circuits

The transformer should be connected only as described on the nameplate or the wiring diagram inside the wiring compartment cover, or as otherwise specifically authorized by Jefferson Electric. Transformers without terminal boards, usually the smaller size transformers, provide leads for connections.

IMPORTANT: Any unused taps or leads must be insulated from each other and taped Encapsulated transformers, 2 kVA and smaller, have their turns ratio compensated for losses so that their open circuit voltage is somewhat higher than the load voltage. Machine tool transformers are compensated up to 5 kVA. Using transformers in the reverse direction from which it is designed would result in lower than expected output voltage.

Mounting and Spacing

Dry-type transformers depend on air for cooling, and must be placed so that room air can circulate freely around them. Cabinet style transformers must be mounted so that air can pass freely through the ventilation openings. The transformer space should be kept clear.

Transformers should be spaced at least six inches apart. Transformers rated 30 kVA and larger should be kept at least six inches from walls and ceilings.

Transformers should never be mounted near heat-generating equipment or near heat-sensitive equipment. Transformers should never be placed in a room with hazardous processes, or where flammable gasses or combustible materials are present. Particular care must be taken when mounting in unventilated plenums or in closets with no ventilation. In areas without free moving air, ambient temperatures can rise above acceptable limits, causing the transformer to overheat.

Maintenance

Periodic inspection of the transformer should be made, depending on conditions. In most clean, dry installations, once a year is usually sufficient. After disconnecting the transformer from the power, the cover should be removed and any dirt cleaned out. Screens covering the ventilating openings should be cleaned.

Inspect for loose connections, terminal and splice conditions and for signs of overheating, rust or deteriorating paint.

RECOMMENDED COPPER WIRE & TRANSFORMER SIZE   
Single-Phase Motors - 230 Volts
Distance - Motor to Transformer in Feet
HPTransformer KVA100150200300500
1-1/23108864
23108864
3588642
57-1/264420
7-1/21064310
Source: EASA Handbook
NEMA TRANSFORMER ENCLOSURE DEFINITIONS
Type 1 General purpose - indoor
Type 2 Drip-proof - indoor
Type 3 Wind blown dust and water - indoor/outdoor
Type 3R Rainproof and sleet/ice resistant - outdoor. Meets above type requirements
Type 3S Dust-tight, rain-tight, and sleet/ice proof - outdoor
Type 4 Water-tight and dust-tight - indoor/outdoor
Type 4X Water-tight, dust-tight and corrosion resistant - indoor
Type 5 Dust-tight - indoor
Type 6 Submersible, water-tight, dust-tight and sleet/ice resistant - indoor/outdoor
Type 7 Class I, Group (S) A,B,C and/or D - indoor hazardous locations - air-break equipment
Type 8 Class I, Group (S) A,B,C and/or D - indoor hazardous locations
Type 9 Class II, Group (S) E,F and/or D - indoor hazardous locations - air-break equipment
Type 10 Bureau of Mines
Type 11 Drip-proof and corrosion resistant
Type 12 Industrial use dust-tight and drip-tight-indoor
Type 13 Oil-tight and dust-tight - indoor
Source: NEMA Pub. No. ST20

RECOMMENDED COPPER WIRE & TRANSFORMER SIZE   
Three-Phase Motors - 230 & 460 Volts
Distance - Motor to Transformer in Feet
HPVoltsTransformer KVA100150200300500
1-1/223031212121210
1-1/246031212121212
22303121212108
246031212121212
3230512101086
346051212121210
523071/2108864
546071/2121212108
71/22301086642
71/246010121212108
102301564441
1046015121212108
152302044420
154602012101086
20230*4221000
20460*108864
25230*2220000
25460*88664
30230*211000000
30460*86642
40230*10000000300
40460*66420
50230*10000000300
50460*44220
60230*100000250500
60460*422000
75230*00000000300500
75460*42000000
* Consult Local Power Company Source: EASA Handbook

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